Tajikistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia that shares borders with several countries including China, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan. Despite being the 98th largest country in the world (it is the smallest Central Asian nation), it is one of the most densely populated with 8 million people (as of 2013). The traditional people who lived in the land were Tajiks with roots from neighboring countries such as Uzbekistan and Afghanistan. Travel to Tajikistan was not very popular during the earlier eras but have garnered some attention as of late, especially among adventure travelers.

There are four provinces that make up Tajikistan and the state is headed by a president. The land is mostly made up of a mountainous terrain; in fact, about 90% of the land is covered in mountains. Specifically, the Pamir range dominates the landscape of the country. And more than half of the country is situated at 3,000 meters above sea level. Only the valleys and river valleys are located in the lower land. Because of the abundance in mountainous terrain, a lot of those who travel to Tajikistan are mountaineers.

In terms of economy, Tajikistan is going through a transitional phase. Its economy relies on cotton and aluminum production and remittances.

Map No Division Capital Popul.(2010)
1 Sughd Khujand 2,233,500
2 Region of Republican Subordination Dushanbe 1,722,900
3 Khatlon Qurghonteppa 2,677,300
4 Gorno-Badakhshan Khorugh 206,000
  Dushanbe Dushanbe 778,500



Rank City Population
1 Dushanbe 679,400
2 Khujand 155,900
3 Kulob 93,900
4 Qurghonteppa 71,000
5 Istaravshan 60,200
6 Vahdat 49,100
7 Konibodom 47,100
8 Tursunzoda 44,200
9 Isfara 40,600
10 Panjakent 35,900

The population of Tajikistan is 9.2 million (May 2019).



Tajikistan - is amazing and unique country. There are two World Heritage Sites. All of its territory consists of mountains, thus, most of the famous places here are mountain landscapes, mountain tops and peaks, lakes, hot springs, settlements and villages in intermountain valleys, high mountain deserts in Badakhshan.

  • Samani peak (Communism);
  • K. Marks peak;
  • Sarez lake.


Tajikistan is the country with an ancient culture. Ruins of ancient buildings testify that city settlements occurred here for already 4-4,5 thousand years. Among the preserved historical monuments there are world-famous Penjikent, Sarazm and Ajina-Tepa. Also, no less famous monuments as Istravshan (ancient Kiropol) and Khodjent (the ancient Alexandria-Eschata).

  • Penjikent;
  • Dushanbe;
  • Murgab;
  • Khorog;
  • Khojent;
  • Istravshan;
  • Kaakhka fortress;
  • Yamchun fortress;
  • Mountain settlements.

Applied art, ethnography and national cuisine of Tajikistan will be a great of an interest for tourists.



Tajikistan's climate is continental, subtropical, and semiarid, with some desert areas. The climate changes drastically according to elevation, however. The Fergana Valley and other lowlands are shielded by mountains from Arctic air masses, but temperatures in that region still drop below freezing for more than 100 days a year. In the subtropical southwestern lowlands, which have the highest average temperatures, the climate is arid, although some sections now are irrigated for farming. At Tajikistan's lower elevations, the average temperature range is 23 to 30 °C (73.4 to 86.0 °F) in July and −1 to 3 °C (30.2 to 37.4 °F) in January. In the eastern Pamirs, the average July temperature is 5 to 10 °C (41 to 50 °F), and the average January temperature is −15 to −20 °C (5 to −4 °F).[6]

Tajikistan is the wettest of the Central Asian republics, with the average annual precipitation for the Kafernigan and Vakhsh valleys in the south being around 500 to 600 mm (19.7 to 23.6 in), and up to 1,500 mm (59.1 in) in the mountains. At the Fedchenko Glacier, as much as 223.6 cm (88.0 in) of snow falls each year. Only in the northern Fergana Valley and in the rain shadow areas of the eastern Pamirs is precipitation as low as in other parts of Central Asia: in the eastern Pamirs less than 100 mm (3.94 in) falls per year. Most precipitation occurs in the winter and spring.


July (°C)

July (°F)

January (°C)

January (°F)






























On June 1, 2016, a new portal for issuing electronic visas “e-Visa” was launched in Tajikistan, which allows foreign citizens entering the country for tourism or business purposes to fill out an electronic application and receive an electronic visa without being sent to the Tajik consulate abroad.

Resorts on water healing springs (“Garm-Chashma”, “Gilandy”, “Khoja-Obigarm”, “Obi-Garm”, “Shaambara”, “Zumrad”) are very popular among local residents.


The main directions of tourism development:

Mountain hiking is geographically characteristic mainly for the outskirts of the city of Dushanbe and the surrounding areas (Varzob, Karatag, Shirkent and Romit gorges), as well as Kuhistan (this name refers to the region that covers Turkestan, Zeravshan and Gissar ranges). In the west of Kuhistan, there are the Fan Mountains (the area of ​​Payron, Marguzor, Allautdin lakes, Iskanderkul lake), where dozens of tourist routes are laid, several stationary tourist camps and camps have been created - in the city of Dushanbe, Varzob gorge, on the Iskanderkul lake, Allautdin, Marguzor lakes, on shore of the artificial Kairakkum reservoir in the area of ​​the city of Khujand (former city of Leninabad).

Cultural and educational tourism is more characteristic for Northern and Southern Tajikistan (Sughd and Khatlon regions), where there are opportunities for acquaintance with archaeological sites, museums, and other local attractions.

Climbing is practiced in the Fan Mountains, the Matchinsky mountain junction, as well as in the region of the highest point of the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) - the peak of Communism (7495 m), which, in 2000, was renamed the peak named after Ismail Samani.