The Republic of Kazakhstan is a unitary state with a presidential form of government. Kazakhstan gained independence on 16 December 1991. Its capital is the city of Nur-Sultan, the currency is the tenge, and the state language is Kazakh. The Russian language has the status of a language of interethnic communication.


By its administrative-territorial structure, the country is divided into 14 regions and 3 cities of national significance. The cities of national significance are Nur-Sultan, the nation's capital, Almaty and Shymkent.




Rank City Population
1 Almaty 1,703,481
2 Nur-Sultan 1,014,015
3 Shymkent 683,273
4 Karaganda 501,173
5 Aktobe 427,719
6 Taraz 351,476
7 Pavlodar 350,998
8 Oskemen 344,421
9 Semey 312,136
10 Oral 278,096

The population of Kazakhstan is 18.9 million (May 2019).



Kazakhstan is a vast country known for varying landscapes and climates. As you travel throughout Kazakhstan, you will come across an abundance of intriguing points of interest that highlight the beauty of the country as well as the rich culture of the Kazakh people. Some of these points of interest fall a list of World Heritage Sites deemed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). These three attractions differ greatly, but each is a must to add to your itinerary for your visit to Kazakhstan.

The main and largest cities of Northern Kazakhstan are Kustanai and Pavlodar. Everything from magnificent nature and enchanting landscapes to a mild climate meets the requirements of even the most demanding tourists traveling by car or on foot.

The resorts of Kokshetau, Bayan-Aul, Muyldy offer their guests excellent conditions for relaxation, health improvement, interesting leisure.

And the nature reserves "Korgaldzhin" and "Naurzum" will be very interesting for lovers of "educational" tourism.

Tourism centers of Western Kazakhstan are the cities of Aktobe and Atyrau, the Mangystau region. The western part of the republic is located at the crossroads of two continents - Europe and Asia, two rivers - the Volga and the Urals, in the Caspian Sea basin. The reserves and monuments of ancient Mangyshlak and Ustyurt, as well as the unforgettable places described in the Kazakh epos, attract many researchers, historians, archaeologists and, of course, tourists.

In the very center of the Republic is the Karaganda region. The tourist advantage of this region is the conservation area of ​​one of the largest lakes in the world - Lake Balkhash, surrounded by unique and picturesque mountains and forests. In the vicinity of Balkhash there are a lot of interesting unforgettable places with various archaeological and ethnographic relics.

The region of Lake Balkhash is a wonderful resort area where you can relax on the beaches, go fishing, climb the mountains and enjoy all the natural beauties of this amazing region.

The main natural attractions of this region are the Altai Mountains, their wooded foothills, the Irtysh River and the beautiful lakes Zaysan, Markakol, Sauskan. The flora and fauna are diverse and rich. The Semipalatinsk region is the birthplace of the great Kazakh poet Abai Kunanbayev and the wonderful writer Mukhtar Auezov. Tourism in Kazakhstan in these regions reveals all the beauties of local nature.

The main centers of tourism in southern Kazakhstan are Almaty, Dzhambul, Kzyl-Orda. This region is famous for its ancient history and rich culture, as evidenced by such famous monuments of medieval architecture as the mausoleums of Arystan-Bab, Aisha-Bibi, Karahan, Babaja-Khatun in Taraz, the architectural ensemble of Khoja Ahmed Yassavi in ​​Turkestan, etc. Unique Scythian grave hills in Semirechye (Almaty region) can complement this list. The world famous Baikonur Cosmodrome is located in the region of Southern Kazakhstan. Tourism in Kazakhstan is very rich and diverse.

In addition, South Kazakhstan is famous for its unique climatic conditions for recreation, relaxation, hunting, mountain climbing, skiing, ice skating.



Kazakhstan has an "extreme" continental climate, with warm summers and very cold winters. Indeed, Nursultan is the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulaanbaatar. Precipitation varies between arid and semi-arid conditions, the winter being particularly dry.


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Common mammals include the wolfred foxcorsac foxmooseargali (the largest species of sheep), Eurasian lynxPallas's cat, and snow leopards, several of which are protected. Kazakhstan's Red Book of Protected Species lists 125 vertebrates including many birds and mammals, and 404 plants including fungi, algae and lichen.



Kazakhstan has significant potential for the development of almost all types of tourism: from ecological to business. This is facilitated by a rich history, which left many archaeological and historical monuments in the country. This is due to the unique geographical location, thanks to which in Kazakhstan you can find untouched corners of nature in a variety of landscapes. This is achieved thanks to the development of tourism infrastructure, the ongoing work of simplifying the visa regime and many other factors.


The following types of tourism are currently developing in Kazakhstan:

It will be most convenient to get acquainted with the modern life of Kazakhstan in the cities of Nur-Sultan, Almaty, Shymkent, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Aktau, the tourist infrastructure offers services for every taste and budget.

The number and diversity of territories, whose nature has been preserved in almost original form, makes Kazakhstan incredibly attractive for lovers of eco-tourism. There are 12 national parks and 10 reserves in Kazakhstan.

Kazakhstan, due to its size and geographical location, provides an opportunity to visit such natural areas that tourists usually have to “look for" in a number of individual states.

These are the steppes and lakes of Central Kazakhstan, listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. These are foothills and mountains of the east and southeast, which, due to the diversity of landscapes, flora and fauna, can easily be compared to the Alps region. This is the coast of the Caspian Sea - the largest enclosed reservoir in the world. These are the deserts of the south-west of Kazakhstan, capable of striking the most sophisticated lovers of photo-tourism, these are the forests around Borovoe Lake in the north of the country and much more.

For fans of ecotourism, travel companies in Kazakhstan have developed about a thousand different routes, often including, in addition to visiting natural sites, acquaintance with the ancient way of life of Kazakh nomads.

Kazakhstan provides excellent conditions for sports tourism in such areas as alpine skiing tourism, mountaineering, water tourism, equestrian tourism, cycling tourism and much more.

The nature of Kazakhstan provides unique routes and conditions for practicing a variety of sports, including extreme sports, and the country's authorities, in turn, are making efforts to provide adequate infrastructure. For example, the slopes of the Shymbulak ski resort are considered among the best in the world.

Kazakhstan is a great place for health tourism. A special feature here is, again, the active use of medicinal natural resources: hot springs, therapeutic mud, healing climate. In Kazakhstan, koumyso therapy is practiced, the use of mineral water, pantotreatment. At the same time, sanatoriums equipped with modern equipment are located directly next to the “natural bases" of such treatment.

For those who would like not only to improve their health, but simply to relax and gather their strength, many rest houses have been built in Kazakhstan. They are located in such beautiful and ecologically clean places as the coast of Lake Alakol, the resort area of Borovoye and Bayanaul, the coast of the Caspian Sea, the foothills of the Trans-Ili and Dzungarian Alatau, etc.

Religious tourism in Kazakhstan concerns, for the most part, visits to Muslim religious sites. Here followers of Islam can visit mosques, mausoleums, tombs and tombs of famous religious figures. These are, for example, the mausoleums of Khoja Ahmet Yassawi and Arystan Baba, the underground mosques of Shakpak-Ata and Beket-Ata, and many others.

Modern religious buildings in Kazakhstan also will not leave indifferent pilgrims. The pearl here is the mosque "Hazret Sultan", located on the main square of Nur-Sultan "Kazakh eli".

In addition to Islamic shrines and mosques, Kazakhstan has a number of beautiful Orthodox churches, such as the Ascension Cathedral, the Assumption Cathedral, the Holy Trinity Church, the Resurrection Cathedral (Semey), and others.

In the south-east of the country and in Altai there are a number of objects reflecting the history of the presence of Buddhism in the territory of Kazakhstan.

Every year business tourism attracts an increasing number of guests to the largest cities of Kazakhstan. This is, first of all, Nur-Sultan, Almaty and Atyrau. Here, various regional and international conferences, summits, symposia are increasingly being held, attracting an impressive number of foreign business tourists to the country.

For the development of this type of tourism in the cities of the country are constantly being built hotels that are focused on various groups of tourists.